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Hund mit Hot Spot

Auf dieser Seite sind interessante, für die Veterinärdermatologie relevante Fachpubli­ka­tionen zusam­men­gefasst, wobei die Publikati­o­nen sowohl aus nationalen, als auch inter­na­ti­o­nalen Quellen stam­men.

Bitte bringen Sie ihre eigenen Fach-Veröffent­lichungen hier mit ein und melden diese per E-Mail an vorstand@dgvd.org vorstand@dgvd.org. Die Tierder­ma­to­lo­gie hat so viele Facetten, das wir viel von­einander lernen können.

Neue Publikationen

Putative contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.

Sung HJ, Yoon IH, Kim JH. Can Vet J. 2017 Sep;58(9):914-918.

A 10-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel dog was referred for an evaluation of acute-onset generalized pustular cutaneous lesions following application of ketoconazole shampoo. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations of the lesions revealed intra-epidermal pustules with predominantly neutrophils and acantholytic cells. This is the first description of putative contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.

Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study.

Sundburg CR, Belanger JM, Bannasch DL, Famula TR, Oberbauer AM. BMC Vet Res. 2016 Dec 8;12(1):278.

Gonadectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on dogs in the United States. Neutering has been shown to reduce the risk for some diseases although recent reports suggest increased prevalence for structural disorders and some neoplasias. The relation between neuter status and autoimmune diseases has not been explored. This study evaluated the prevalence and risk of atopic dermatitis (ATOP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), canine myasthenia gravis (CMG), colitis (COL), hypoadrenocorticism (ADD), hypothyroidism (HYPO), immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lupus erythematosus (LUP), and pemphigus complex (PEMC), for intact females, intact males, neutered females, and neutered males. Pyometra (PYO) was evaluated as a control condition.

Patient records (90,090) from the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis from 1995 to 2010 were analyzed in order to determine the risk of immune-mediated disease relative to neuter status in dogs. Neutered dogs had a significantly greater risk of ATOP, AIHA, ADD, HYPO, ITP, and IBD than intact dogs with neutered females being at greater risk than neutered males for all but AIHA and ADD. Neutered females, but not males, had a significantly greater risk of LUP than intact females. Pyometra was a greater risk for intact females. The data underscore the importance of sex steroids on immune function emphasizing a role of these hormones on tissue self-recognition. Neutering is critically important for population control, reduction of reproductive disorders, and offers convenience for owners. Despite these advantages, the analyses of the present study suggest that neutering is associated with increased risk for certain autoimmune disorders and underscore the need for owners to consult with their veterinary practitioner prior to neutering to evaluate possible benefits and risks associated with such a procedure.

This article is available as a free download under www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. When you evaluate this data, you will see that the odds to develop some of those diseases doubles, which sounds dramatic, but when you look at the prevalence data, it means, that instead of 1 in 100,000 dogs getting the disease it doubles to 1 in 50,000 dogs...

Oral glucocorticoid pulse therapy for induction of treatment of canine pemphigus foliaceus - a comparative study.

Bizikova P, Olivry T. Vet Dermatol. 2015 Oct;26(5):354-8, e76-7. doi: 10.1111/vde.12241.

The management of canine pemphigus foliaceus (PF) often requires long-term immunosuppressive treatment that is often associated with unacceptable adverse effects. High-dose glucocorticoid pulse therapy, an alternative protocole used for pemphigus in people, has been shown to provide rapid improvement in dogs with pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. To further identify the benefit of pulse therapy for management of canine PF, we compared the outcomes of oral glucocorticoid pulse and traditional therapies during the first 3 months of disease management. Dogs were allocated based on their oral glucocorticoid regimen during the first 12 weeks of PF management into the 'traditional' (20 dogs) or the 'pulse' (18 dogs) treatment groups.

The proportion of dogs achieving complete remission (CR) during the first 12 weeks of treatment was significantly higher for the 'pulse' (61%) than for the 'traditional' group (15%; P = 0.0063). The maximal oral glucocorticoid dosage given to dogs from the 'traditional' group was significantly higher (median: 3.2 mg/kg) than that given between pulses to dogs from the other group (median: 1.1 mg/kg; P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between groups in the time needed to achieve CR, the proportion of dogs requiring adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment or in the proportion of dogs experiencing severe adverse drug reactions. These results suggest several benefits associated with oral glucocorticoid pulse therapy, such as a higher proportion of dogs achieving CR during the first 3 months, a lower average maximal oral glucocorticoid dosage given between pulses and minimal adverse drug events.

Dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin pemphigus-like drug reaction in three dogs.

Bizikova P, Moriello KA, Linder KE, Sauber L. Vet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;26(3):206-8, e45-6. doi: 10.1111/vde.12202.

Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) can occur spontaneously or as a reaction pattern associated with cutaneous adverse drug reactions. This report provides clinical, histological and immunological assessments of three dogs that developed cutaneous adverse drug reactions following application of a topical flea and tick control product, which contained dinotefuran, pyriproxyfen and permethrin. The dogs exhibited rapid onset of papules, pustules and crusts at the site of application of the flea control product. In two dogs, the lesions became generalized, while the third exhibited a localized phenotype. Both dogs with generalized lesions required immunosuppressive treatment; one achieved remission after 1 year of treatment and one was euthanized due to adverse effects of glucocorticoids. The dog with a localized phenotype was treated with topical glucocorticoids exclusively and achieved remission after 10 months. Histology revealed subcorneal pustular dermatitis, with acantholysis of keratinocytes and focal to multifocal full-thickness epidermal necrosis. These features are similar to those previously reported for pesticide-triggered and spontaneous PF. Tissue-bound IgG was detected in two of three dogs, and autoantibodies targeting canine desmocollin-1 were identified in the serum of the one dog from which a sample was available. Cutaneous adverse drug reaction caused by a flea control product containing dinotefuran, pyriproxyfen and permethrin closely resembled those reported for other pesticide-associated PF-like cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Although it appears to be a rare entity, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the potential for flea and tick control products to trigger PF-like reactions.

Therapeutic effectiveness of calcineurin inhibitors in canine vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

Banovic F, Robson D, Linek M, Olivry T. Vet Dermatol. 2017 Oct;28(5):493-e115. doi: 10.1111/vde.12448.

Oral and topical calcineurin inhibitors (CIs) have been reported to lead to complete lesion remission in several dogs with vesicular cutaneous lupus erythematosus (VCLE). This study reports retrospectively on the effectiveness and adverse effects of systemic (ciclosporin) and/or topical (tacrolimus/pimecrolimus) CIs in 11 dogs with VCLE. Inclusion criteria were: (i) presence of characteristic annular, polycyclic or serpiginous ulcerations distributed over the groin, axillae and/or ventral abdomen; (ii) a histopathological diagnosis of VCLE (i.e. a lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis with vesiculation); (iii) treatment that included CIs for at least eight weeks; and (iv) follow-up until death/euthanasia or for a minimum of 12 months post-diagnosis. Initial therapy included the avoidance of excessive sun exposure, oral glucocorticoids [six of 11 dogs (55%); progressively tapered over a month] and once daily ciclosporin [11 dogs (100%); median 5.8 mg/kg]. A complete remission (CR) of signs occurred between days 35 and 70 after starting CIs in eight dogs (73%); increasing ciclosporin dosage and adding topical tacrolimus induced a CR in two additional dogs (18%). Relapses were common when doses were tapered or discontinued. With the exception of three dogs that were euthanized, clinical signs were maintained in CR with oral ciclosporin (eight of eight dogs treated, 100%) or topical tacrolimus/pimecrolimus (four of eight dogs; 50%) with a median follow-up of 2.9 years. These observations support CIs as the preferable therapeutic alternatives to long-term immunosuppression with oral glucocorticoids in dogs with VCLE.

A retrospective study comparing histopathological and immunopathological features of nasal planum dermatitis in 20 dogs with discoid lupus erythematosus or leishmaniosis.

De Lucia M, Mezzalira G, Bardagí M, Fondevila DM, Fabbri E, Fondati A. Vet Dermatol. 2017 Apr;28(2):200-e46. doi: 10.1111/vde.12419.

In areas endemic for leishmaniosis, discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and canine leishmaniosis (CanL) are the most common differential diagnoses for nasal planum erosive-ulcerative dermatitis in dogs. This study compares histopathological and immunopathological features of canine nasal planum erosive-ulcerative dermatitis with depigmentation due to DLE or CanL. Nasal planum biopsies from dogs with nasal planum loss of architecture, depigmentation, swelling, erosions or ulcerations due to DLE (n = 14) or CanL (n = 6) were included. Sections of paraffin-embedded samples, stained with haematoxylin and eosin were reviewed. Samples were examined using antibodies targeting T cells (CD3), B cells (CD20), macrophages (Mac387) and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). Histopathological and immunophenotypical findings were compared between DLE and CanL cases. Lichenoid and interface dermatitis were observed in both DLE and CanL cases. A nodular-to-diffuse, superficial and/or deep dermatitis with macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells was present only in CanL samples. CD20-positive cells predominated over CD3- and Mac387-positive cells in the two conditions. The percentage of dermal Mac387-positive cells was higher in CanL compared to DLE samples and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.025). In this study, similar histopathological and immunopathological findings were observed in dogs with nasal planum lesions due to DLE or CanL. Therefore, in areas endemic for leishmaniosis, the presence of the parasite should be investigated in canine nasal planum dermatitis showing clinical and histopathological features suggestive of DLE.

Clinical and microscopic features of generalized discoid lupus erythematosus in dogs (10 cases).

Banovic F, Linder KE, Uri M, Rossi MA, Olivry T. Vet Dermatol. 2016 Dec;27(6):488-e131. doi: 10.1111/vde.12389.

Generalized discoid lupus erythematosus (GDLE) is a newly recognized canine variant of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) that is not well characterized. We report herein the signalment, clinical signs, treatment outcome, histopathology and immunological findings of 10 dogs with GDLE. Inclusion criteria were: (i) a >3 month history of generalized skin lesions indicating a chronic or recurrent nature; (ii) skin lesions resembling those of human GDLE; (iii) histopathology of CLE (lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis). Direct immunofluorescence (IF) and antinuclear antibody serology were investigated whenever possible. Various breeds were affected in their mid- to late adulthood. Selection criteria of generalized multifocal, annular ("discoid") to polycyclic plaques with pigment changes, erythematous margin, adherent scaling, follicular plugging and central alopecia were shown in all dogs. In nine dogs, plaques contained mild to moderate central scarring with depigmentation and/or hyperpigmentation. There were no dogs in which the disease progressed to systemic lupus erythematosus within a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Per inclusion criteria, interface dermatitis occurred with basement membrane zone (BMZ) thickening, suprabasal apoptosis and/or dermal fibrosis in some dogs. Infundibular interface folliculitis was common; it sometimes transitioned to mural folliculitis in lower follicle segments, and occurred with follicular and sebaceous gland atrophy. The direct IF revealed patchy deposition of immunoglobulin IgG and IgM at the BMZ. Lesions responded to a variety of treatments, including ciclosporin, hydroxychloroquine, topical tacrolimus and tetracycline/ niacinamide. Relapses were common after medications were tapered. These observations support the existence of a canine homologue of human GDLE.

Peculiarities of feline hyperadrenocorticism: Update on diagnosis and treatment.

Boland LA, Barrs VR. J Feline Med Surg. 2017 Sep;19(9):933-947. doi: 10.1177/1098612X17723245.

Practical relevance: Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is a relatively uncommon endocrinopathy of older cats, with a mean age at diagnosis of 10 years. In addition to pituitary-dependent and adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism, clinical signs of HAC can result from adrenal sex steroid-producing tumours. Clinical challenges: While HAC in cats has many similarities to canine HAC, there are key differences in presentation, diagnosis and response to therapy.

Most, but not all, cats with HAC have concurrent diabetes mellitus, which is often insulin resistant. Up to a third of cats with HAC have extreme skin fragility and are at high risk of debilitating iatrogenic skin tears during diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Infections of the skin and nail beds, and urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, secondary to cortisol-induced immune suppression, are also common. Cats respond differently to dogs to adrenal function tests including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests; a 10-fold higher dose of dexamethasone is recommended in cats to screen for HAC. Curative treatment options include adrenalectomy or transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Radiation or medical treatment may improve clinical signs. The response to mitotane therapy is poor. While trilostane is the medical treatment of choice based on retrospective studies, investigations into the pharmacokinetics of this drug in cats are lacking.

Global importance: Feline HAC occurs worldwide and is not associated with any purebreed predisposition. Although uncommon, adrenal sex steroid-producing tumours have a higher prevalence in cats than in dogs. Evidence base: The information in this review is drawn from over 180 reported cases of feline HAC. Reports investigating clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment outcomes are observational, retrospective multiple case series (EBM grade III) or single case reports (EBM grade IV). While most endocrine testing studies for diagnosis are cohort controlled analytical studies (EBM grade III), prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled studies have been performed (EBM grade I).

Comparison of Survival Times for Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism in a Primary-Care Hospital: Treated with Trilostane versus Untreated.

Nagata N, Kojima K, Yuki M. J Vet Intern Med. 2017 Jan;31(1):22-28. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14617.

BACKGROUND: Although pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs, the effects of withholding treatment on survival time in dogs with PDH remain unclear.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of treatment in dogs with PDH by comparing survival times between dogs treated with trilostane and untreated dogs.

ANIMALS: Forty-three dogs diagnosed with PDH at a primary-care hospital in Japan between June 2009 and January 2014.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. The medical records of dogs with PDH treated with trilostane (n = 17) or left untreated (n = 26) were reviewed retrospectively. Survival analysis at 2 years after diagnosis of PDH was performed.

RESULTS: Median survival time for the trilostane group was not reached (95% confidence interval [CI], 443 days-not applicable) and was significantly longer than the 506 days (95% CI, 292-564 days; P = .016) for the untreated group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis (including age at diagnosis, basal cortisol concentration at diagnosis, and treatment group) only identified assignment to the untreated group (hazard ratio, 5.01; 95% CI, 1.63-15.44) as associated with increased mortality.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The results of this retrospective cohort study suggest that withholding treatment for dogs with PDH might be associated with a higher risk of death. This represents the largest study to date to report survival times of untreated dogs with PDH.

This article can be downloaded without extra charge under: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Pre-trilostane and three-hour post-trilostane cortisol to monitor trilostane therapy in dogs.

Macfarlane L, Parkin T, Ramsey I. Vet Rec. 2016 Dec 10;179(23):597. doi: 10.1136/vr.103744.

It is recommended that trilostane therapy of canine hyperadrenocorticism is monitored using an ACTH stimulation test, however this has never been validated. Three cortisol concentrations (pre-trilostane, 3-hour posttrilostane and 1-hour post-ACTH stimulation) were compared to a clinical score obtained from an owner questionnaire. There were 110 sets of 3 cortisol measurements and questionnaires obtained from 67 trilostane treated dogs. Questionnaire results were used to classify each dog as well or unwell. Well dogs were then categorised as having excellent, moderate or poor hyperadrenocorticism control, using thresholds produced by 14 independent veterinarians. Correlation co-efficients were used to compare the three cortisol concentrations to the owner score and the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the three cortisol concentrations between categories of control. Cortisol cut-off values between significantly different categories were determined using ROC curves. Pre-trilostane and 3-hour post-trilostane cortisol were better correlated to the owner score and had cut-offs to differentiate between categories of control that had superior sensitivity and specificity results, than the post-ACTH cortisol. Iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism was not detected in any unwell dog. This study shows that the pre-trilostane and 3-hour post-trilostane cortisol are potentially better monitoring methods than the ACTH stimulation test.

This article can be downloaded without extra charge under: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Lack of association between clinical signs and laboratory parameters in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism before and during trilostane treatment.

Boretti FS, Holzthüm J, Reusch CE, Sieber-Ruckstuhl NS. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2016 Sep;158(9):631-638. doi: 10.17236/sat00083.

Trilostane therapy, the treatment of choice for pituitary- dependent hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) in dogs, is monitored by assessing resolution of clinical signs and measuring adrenocortical reserve capacity with an ACTH-stimulation test. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate agreement between clinical signs reported by owners and cortisol or ACTH concentrations before and during trilostane therapy (starting dose 1-2 mg/kg once daily). A questionnaire on signs of HAC was used and a clinical score calculated as the sum of the 9 questions. Eighteen questionnaires at diagnosis and 97 during therapy were filled out by owners of 32 dogs. An ACTH-stimulation test was performed at each reevaluation. There were weak correlations between abdominal girth, appetite or weight gain and cortisol concentrations during therapy. However, the clinical score did not correlate with cortisol or cACTH values. In 50% of dogs, trilostane application had to be changed from once daily to twice daily during the study. Clinical signs reported by owners matched poorly with cortisol or cACTH concentrations at any time point. If low-dose trilostane is used, treatment frequency often has to be increased.

This article comes to different conclusions than the above-mentioned article because it already assumes that the ACTH stimulation test is the gold standard. It can be downloaded without extra charge under: sat.gstsvs.ch/fileadmin/datapool_upload/IgJournal/Artikel/pdf/SAT_09_2016_Boretti.pdf sat.gstsvs.ch (PDF)

Effects of Levothyroxine Administration and Withdrawal on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Euthyroid Dogs.

Ziglioli V, Panciera DL, Troy GC, Monroe WE, Boes KM, Refsal KR.

J Vet Intern Med. 2017 May;31(3):705-710. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14711. Epub 2017 Apr 22.

Chronic supplementation can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPTA) and make it difficult to assess thyroid function after withdrawal of levothyroxine. The objective of this study was to determine whether the HPTA is suppressed after levothyroxine administration in euthyroid dogs and the time required for resolution of any suppression. A prospective, randomized study administering levothyroxine to 28 euthyroid dogs for 8 weeks (group 1) or 16 weeks (group 2). Serum concentrations of total thyroxine (T4 ), free thyroxine (fT4 ) by equilibrium dialysis, thyroid stimulating hormone; thyrotropin (TSH), and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ) were measured every 4 weeks during supplementation and for 16 weeks after levothyroxine was discontinued. Mean serum concentrations of T4 and fT4 were significantly higher (P < .0001) and TSH was lower (P < .0001) in all dogs during levothyroxine administration compared to baseline. Mean serum concentrations of T4 , fT4, and TSH in both groups, beginning 1 week after levothyroxine was discontinued, were significantly different (P < .01) compared to values during levothyroxine administration but not compared to baseline values (P > .3). Assessing thyroid function tests 1 week after cessation of levothyroxine at 26 μg/kg once a day for up to 16 weeks will provide an accurate assessment of thyroid function in healthy euthyroid dogs.

This article shows, that the thyroid gland does not completely shut down within 8 weeks of supplementaiton with T4 and can be downloaded without extra charge under: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Literaturquellen zum Thema Hormone und Neoplasien

Swiss Canine Cancer Registry 1955-2008: Occurrence of the Most Common Tumour Diagnoses and Influence of Age, Breed, Body Size, Sex and Neutering Status on Tumour Development.

Grüntzig K, Graf R, Boo G, Guscetti F, Hässig M, Axhausen KW, Fabrikant S, Welle M, Meier D, Folkers G, Pospischil A.

J Comp Pathol. 2016, Jul 9. pii: S0021-9975(16)30050-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.05.011.

This study is based on the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry, comprising 121,963 diagnostic records of dogs compiled between 1955 and 2008, in which 63,214 (51.83%) animals were diagnosed with tumour lesions through microscopical investigation.

Adenoma/adenocarcinoma (n = 12,293, 18.09%) was the most frequent tumour diagnosis. Other common tumour diagnoses were: mast cell tumour (n = 4,415, 6.50%), lymphoma (n = 2,955, 4.35%), melanocytic tumours (n = 2,466, 3.63%), fibroma/ fibrosarcoma (n = 2,309, 3.40%), haemangioma/ haemangiosarcoma (n = 1,904, 2.80%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,324, 1.95%) and osteoma/ osteosarcoma (n = 842, 1.24%). The relative occurrence over time and the most common body locations of those tumour diagnoses are presented. Analyses of the influence of age, breed, body size, sex and neutering status on tumour development were carried out using multiple logistic regression. In certain breeds/breed categories the odds ratios (ORs) for particular tumours were outstandingly high: the boxer had higher ORs for mast cell tumour and haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, as did the shepherd group for haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, the schnauzer for squamous cell carcinoma and the rottweiler for osteoma/osteosarcoma. In small dogs, the risk of developing mammary tumours was three times higher than in large dogs. However, small dogs were less likely to be affected by many other tumour types (e.g. tumours of the skeletal system). Examination of the influence of sex and neutering status on tumour prevalence showed that the results depend on the examination method. In all sampling groups the risk for female dogs of developing adenoma/adenocarcinoma was higher than for male dogs. Females had a lower risk of developing haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma than males. Neutered animals were at higher risk of developing specific tumours outside the genital organs than intact animals. The sample size allows detailed insight into the influences of age, breed, body size, sex and neutering status on canine tumour development. In many cases, the analysis confirms the findings of other authors. In some cases, the results are unique or contradict other studies, implying that further investigations are necessary.

Diesen Artikel kostenfrei herunterladen: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article www.sciencedirect.com

Bowenoid in situ carcinomas in two Devon Rex cats: evidence of unusually aggressive neoplasm behaviour in this breed and detection of papillomaviral gene expression in primary and metastatic lesions.

Munday JS1, Benfell MW2, French A3, Orbell GM3, Thomson N1.

Vet Dermatol. 2016 Jun;27(3):215-e55. doi: 10.1111/vde.12319.

Bowenoid in situ carcinomas (BISCs) are rare feline tumours that are thought to be caused by papillomavirus infection. Although they usually develop in old cats and are slowly progressive, multiple aggressive BISCs have been reported previously in a comparatively young Devon Rex cat. A 5-year-old (Case 1) and an 8-year-old (Case 2) Devon Rex cat developed numerous BISCs. Rapid progression resulted in euthanasia of both cats after 8 months. A postmortem examination was possible only for Case 2 and revealed pulmonary metastases. Consensus PCR amplified only Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) DNA from lesions from both cats. High FcaPV-2 copy number and FcaPV-2 E6/E7 gene expression were detected in a BISC from Case 1. High FcaPV-2 copy number and FcaPV-2 gene expression were detected in a BISC, a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the pulmonary metastases from Case 2, but not in two other cutaneous SCCs.

The results provide additional evidence that BISCs develop at a younger age in Devon Rex cats and that BISCs in Devon Rex cats have a more aggressive behaviour than BISCs in other cat breeds. These unusual features should be considered when evaluating and treating skin disease in Devon Rex cats. The detection of FcaPV-2 gene expression in the lung neoplasms suggests a potential role of FcaPV-2 in the development of metastatic disease. However, the absence of FcaPV-2 gene expression in two cutaneous SCCs suggests that other factors could have also promoted cancer development.

Two Canine Papillomaviruses Associated With Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Two Related Basenji Dogs.

Luff J, Rowland P, Mader M, Orr C, Yuan H.

Vet Pathol. 2016 Mar 4. pii: 0300985816630795. [Epub ahead of print]

Papillomaviruses (PV) are associated with benign mucosal and cutaneous epithelial proliferations. In dogs, PV-associated pigmented plaques and papillomas can undergo malignant transformation, but this is rare, and most cases of canine squamous cell carcinoma do not arise from PV-induced precursor lesions. We describe herein the progression of pigmented plaques to invasive and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma associated with 2 canine papillomaviruses (CPV) in 2 related Basenji dogs. Immunohistochemistry for PV antigen revealed strong nuclear immunoreactivity within keratinocytes from pigmented plaques from both dogs, consistent with a productive viral infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the L1 gene revealed PV DNA sequences from 2 different CPVs. In situ hybridization for CPV revealed strong hybridization signals within the pigmented plaques and neoplastic squamous epithelial cells from both dogs. We report here progression of PV-associated pigmented plaques to metastatic squamous cell carcinoma within 2 Basenji dogs associated with 2 different CPVs.

Molecular and immunohistochemical studies do not support a role for papillomaviruses in canine oral squamous cell carcinoma development.

Vet J. 2015 May;204(2):223-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.03.002. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are common neoplasms of dogs and are of unknown cause. Whereas papillomaviruses (PVs) are an established cause of human OSCCs, few studies have investigated canine OSCCs for a PV aetiology. In humans, a PV aetiology can be determined by detecting PV DNA and PV-induced increased p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16) within the OSCC. In this study, PCR, using four different primer sets and p16 immunohistochemistry, was used to evaluate 28 canine OSCCs for a possible PV aetiology. None of the primers amplified PV DNA from any of the OSCCs although four neoplasms contained intense p16 immunostaining. Intense p16 immunostaining would indicate a PV aetiology in a human OSCC but the absence of PV DNA suggests that the increase in p16 was not due to PV infection. Overall the results indicated that PVs are not a significant cause of canine OSCCs.

Association of breed and histopathological grade in canine mast cell tumours.

Mochizuki H, Motsinger-Reif A, Bettini C, Moroff S, Breen M.

Vet Comp Oncol. 2016 May 19. doi: 10.1111/vco.12225. [Epub ahead of print]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breed and the histopathological grade of canine mast cell tumours (MCTs). A retrospective survey of pathology data of 9375 histopathologically confirmed diagnoses of cutaneous MCTs in the US was evaluated in the context of breed prevalence in over two million registered purebred dogs. Association of histopathological grade with breed, age, sex and spay/neuter status was assessed. The data indicate that the proportion of high-grade tumours increases with advancing age, and that male and intact dogs have increased odds of developing high-grade tumours. A significant difference in the proportion of high-grade tumours between breeds was detected. The Pug was at significantly increased risk of developing low/intermediate-grade tumours, but not high-grade tumours, resulting in preponderance of less aggressive MCTs in this breed. The results of this study suggest a genetic association for the development of high-grade MCTs.

Cytologic Criteria for Mast Cell Tumor Grading in Dogs With Evaluation of Clinical Outcome.

Camus MS, Priest HL, Koehler JW, Driskell EA, Rakich PM, Ilha MR, Krimer PM.

Vet Pathol. 2016 Mar 31. pii: 0300985816638721. [Epub ahead of print]

A 2-tiered histologic grading scheme for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) is based on morphologic characteristics of neoplastic cells, including karyomegaly, multinucleation, nuclear pleomorphism, and mitotic figures. Aspirates from MCTs may provide the same information more quickly, inexpensively, and less invasively. This study used these criteria to develop a cytologic grading scheme for canine MCTs to predict outcome. Three anatomic pathologists graded histologic samples from 152 canine MCTs. Three clinical pathologists evaluated aspirates from these masses using similar criteria. A cytologic grading scheme was created based on correlation with histologic grade and evaluated with a kappa statistic. Survival was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for tumor grades and individual grading components. Simple logistic regression tested for relationships between risk factors and mortality. The cytologic grading scheme that best correlated with histology (kappa = 0.725 ± 0.085) classified a tumor as high grade if it was poorly granulated or had at least 2 of 4 findings: mitotic figures, binucleated or multinucleated cells, nuclear pleomorphism, or >50% anisokaryosis. The cytologic grading scheme had 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity relative to histologic grading. Dogs with histologic and cytologic high grade MCTs were 39 times and 25 times more likely to die within the 2-year follow-up period, respectively, than dogs with low grade MCTs. High tumor grade was associated with increased probability of additional tumors or tumor regrowth. This study concluded that cytologic grade is a useful predictor for treatment planning and prognostication.

Prevalence and risk factors for mast cell tumours in dogs in England.

Shoop SJ, Marlow S, Church DB, English K, McGreevy PD5, Stell AJ, Thomson PC, O'Neill DG, Brodbelt DC.

Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 26;2:1. doi: 10.1186/2052-6687-2-1. eCollection 2015.

Mast cell tumour (MCT) appears to be a frequent tumour type in dogs, though there is little published in relation to its frequency in dogs in the UK. The current study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for MCTs in dogs attending English primary-care veterinary practices. Electronic patient records from practices participating in the VetCompass animal surveillance project between July 2007 and June 2013 were searched for MCT diagnosis. Various search terms and standard diagnostic terms (VeNom codes) identified records containing MCT diagnoses, which were evaluated against clinical criteria for inclusion to the study. MCT prevalence for the entire dataset and specific breed types were calculated. Descriptive statistics characterised MCT cases and multivariable logistic regression methods evaluated risk factors for association with MCT (P < 0.05).

Within a population of 168,636 dogs, 453 had MCT, yielding a prevalence of 0.27% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24% - 0.29%). The highest breed type specific prevalences were for the Boxer at 1.95% (95% CI 1.40% - 2.51%), Golden Retriever at 1.39% (0.98% - 1.81%) and Weimaraner at 0.85% (95% CI 0.17% to 1.53%). Age, insurance status, neuter status, weight and breed type were associated with MCT diagnosis. Of dogs of specific breed type, the Boxer, Pug and Staffordshire Bull Terrier showed greater odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. Conversely, the German Shepherd Dog, Border Collie, West Highland White Terrier, Springer Spaniel and Cocker Spaniel had reduced odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. No association was found between MCT diagnosis and sex. This study highlights a clinically significant prevalence of MCT and identifies specific breed types with predisposition to MCT, potentially aiding veterinarian awareness and facilitating diagnosis.

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Cryptococcosis as an emerging systemic mycosis in dogs.

Vorathavorn VI, Sykes JE, Feldman DG.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2013 Sep-Oct;23(5):489-97. doi: 10.1111/vec.12087. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

Cryptococcosis is a multisystemic disease of dogs, with a predilection for the CNS, caused by encapsulated yeast species of the genus Cryptococcus. The 2 main pathogenic species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii (previously known as C. neoformans var. gattii). Cryptococcosis is an emerging disease in North America, with C. gattii gaining prominence as a cause of serious veterinary and human disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by serologic (antigen) testing, culture, and identification of the organism using light microscopy. False negatives and false positives, while uncommon, can occur in dogs using commercially available antigen tests. Cytological examination demonstrates the organism in a majority of cases, although culture is more sensitive. Specific media are required to differentiate between C. neoformans and C. gattii. The most commonly used antifungal drugs to treat canine cryptococcosis are azole antifungals and amphotericin B. Some strains of Cryptococcus are resistant to antifungal drugs, especially fluconazole. Cautious use of glucocorticoids in critically affected dogs with CNS presentations can improve outcome. Prognosis is variable and depends on the severity of disease, underlying host immunocompetence, and financial constraints of the owner. Altered mental status in dogs with CNS cryptococcosis is a negative prognostic indicator.

Comparison of 2 Doses for ACTH Stimulation Testing in Dogs Suspected of or Treated for Hyperadrenocorticism.

Aldridge C, Behrend EN, Kemppainen RJ, Lee-Fowler TM, Martin LG, Ward CR, Bruyette D, Pannu J, Gaillard P, Lee HP.

J Vet Intern Med. 2016 Jul 18. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14528. [Epub ahead of print]

Lowering the cosyntropin dose needed for ACTH stimulation would make the test more economical. To compare the cortisol response to 1 and 5 μg/kg cosyntropin IV in dogs being screened for hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) and in dogs receiving trilostane or mitotane for pituitary-dependent HAC. Healthy dogs (n = 10); client-owned dogs suspected of having HAC (n = 39) or being treated for pituitary-dependent HAC with mitotane (n = 12) or trilostane (n = 15) were included. In this prospective study, healthy dogs had consecutive ACTH stimulation tests to ensure 2 tests could be performed in sequence. For the first test, cosyntropin (1 μg/kg IV) was administered; the second test was initiated 4 hours after the start of the first (5 μg/kg cosyntropin IV). Dogs suspected of having HAC or being treated with mitotane were tested as the healthy dogs. Dogs receiving trilostane treatment were tested on consecutive days at the same time post pill using the low dose on day 1. In dogs being treated with mitotane or trilostane, the 2 doses were pharmacodynamically equivalent (90% confidence interval, 85.1-108.2%; P = 0.014). However, in dogs suspected of having HAC, the doses were not pharmacodynamically equivalent (90% confidence interval, 73.2-92.8%; P = 0.37); furthermore, in 23% of the dogs, clinical interpretation of test results was different between the doses. For dogs suspected of having HAC, 5 μg/kg cosyntropin IV is still recommended for ACTH stimulation testing. For dogs receiving mitotane or trilostane treatment, a dose of 1 μg/kg cosyntropin IV can be used.

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Epidemiology of hyperadrenocorticism among 210,824 dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in the UK from 2009 to 2014.

O'Neill DG, Scudder C, Faire JM, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC.

J Small Anim Pract. 2016 Jul;57(7):365-73. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12523. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

To estimate prevalence and risk factors for diagnosis with hyperadrenocorticism in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in the UK from 2009 to 2014. Cases were identified by searching the de-identified electronic patient records from UK primary-care veterinary practices participating in the VetCompass Programme. The estimated prevalence for hyperadrenocorticism diagnosis in dogs was 0·28% (95% confidence interval: 0·25 to 0·31). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed four associated risk factors: breed, breed-relative bodyweight, age and insurance status. The bichon frise had 6·5 times the odds (95% CI: 3·5 to 12·1, P<0·001) of hyperadrenocorticism compared with crossbreds. Dogs weighing more than or equal to their breed mean had 1·7 times the odds (95% CI: 1·3 to 2·3, P<0·001) of hyperadrenocorticism compared with dogs weighing less than the breed mean. Dogs aged 12·0 years and above showed 5·7 times the odds (95% CI: 3·7 to 8·7, P<0·001) of hyperadrenocorticism compared with dogs aged 6·0 to 8·9 years. Insured dogs had 4·0 times the odds (95% CI: 2·8 to 5·6, P<0·001) of hyperadrenocorticism compared with non-insured dogs. This is the first epidemiological report of a non-referral hospital population of dogs diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism in the UK and describes important breed, age and bodyweight associations with this disorder which may improve diagnosis and enhance understanding of the underlying pathophysiology.

Was war Ihrer Meinung nach die Ursache für das gehäufte Vorkommen von Hyperadrenokortizismus bei versicherten Hunden?

Comparison of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test results started 2 versus 4 hours after trilostane administration in dogs with naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism.

J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Jul-Aug;28(4):1239-43. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12357. Epub 2014 May 26.

Bonadio CM, Feldman EC, Cohen TA, Kass PH.

Trilostane medical treatment of naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (NOH) in dogs is common, as is use of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test (ACTHst) in monitoring response to treatment. There is uncertainty regarding when the ACTHst should be started relative to time of trilostane administration. The aim of this study was to compare ACTHst results in dogs being treated for NOH with trilostane when the test is begun 2 versus 4 hours after trilostane administration. Twenty-one privately owned dogs with NOH, each treated with trilostane for at least 30 days were included. Each dog had 2 ACTHst completed, 1 started 2 hours and the other 4 hours after trilostane administration. The second test was started no sooner than 46 hours and no later than 74 hours after the first. For all 21 dogs, the mean post-ACTH serum cortisol concentration from tests started 2 hours after trilostane administration (5.4 ± 3.7 μg/dL) was significantly lower (P = .03) as compared with results from the tests started 4 hours after administration (6.5 ± 4.5 μg/dL). Results of ACTHst started at different times yield significantly different results. Dogs with NOH, treated with trilostane, and monitored with ACTHst results should have all of their subsequent ACTHst tests begun at or about the same time after trilostane administration.

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The effect of imepitoin, a recently developed antiepileptic drug, on thyroid parameters and fat metabolism in healthy Beagle dogs.

Vet J. 2016 Jul;213:48-52. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.03.008. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Bossens K, Daminet S, Duchateau L, Rick M, Van Ham L, Bhatti S.

Since early 2013, imepitoin has been used in most European countries for the management of recurrent single generalised epileptic seizures in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. It has been reported that imepitoin is as effective as phenobarbital (PB) in controlling seizures in dogs with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy and it has a clinically superior safety profile. As the use of imepitoin gains popularity, its effect on serum thyroid parameters warrants further investigation since long-term PB administration influences thyroid parameters in dogs, which could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results and incorrect diagnosis of thyroidal illness. A prospective study was conducted to compare the effect of orally administered PB and imepitoin on serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin autoantibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, cholesterol and triglycerides in healthy Beagle dogs. These parameters were determined prior to and at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after antiepileptic drug administration. The starting dose of PB (5 mg/kg PO twice daily; range, 4.4-6.0 mg/kg) was monitored and adjusted to obtain optimal therapeutic serum concentrations (30-35 g/mL). Imepitoin was administered at 30 mg/kg PO twice daily (range, 29.2-35.7 mg/kg). Imepitoin administration did not affect any of the thyroid parameters over an 18-week period. In contrast, serum TT4 concentrations decreased significantly over time in dogs receiving PB (P <0.05). Serum cholesterol concentrations increased significantly over time in dogs in the imepitoin group, but not to the same extent as commonly seen in dogs with primary hypothyroidism.

Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers.

J Vet Intern Med. 2016 Jan-Feb;30(1):85-91. doi: 10.1111/jvim.13818. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Voorbij AM, Leegwater PA, Buijtels JJ, Daminet S, Kooistra HS.

Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the possible role of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) gene and the TSHβ (TSHB) gene was investigated. Miniature Schnauzers with proven central hypothyroidism, based on scintigraphy, and the results of a 3-day-TSH-stimulation test, or a TSH-releasing hormone (TRH)-stimulation test or both, presented to the Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals at Utrecht University or the Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals at Ghent University from 2008 to 2012 were included. Pituitary function tests, thyroid scintigraphy, and computed tomography (CT) of the pituitary area were performed. Gene fragments of affected dogs and controls were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of the products were analyzed. Central hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 7 Miniature Schnauzers. Three dogs had disproportionate dwarfism and at least one of them had a combined deficiency of TSH and prolactin. No disease-causing mutations were found in the TSHB gene and the exons of the TRHR gene of these Schnauzers. Central hypothyroidism could be underdiagnosed in Miniature Schnauzers with hypothyroidism, especially in those of normal stature. The fact that this rare disorder occurred in 7 dogs from the same breed suggests that central hypothyroidism could have a genetic background in Miniature Schnauzers.

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A Multi-Breed Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Canine Hypothyroidism Identifies a Shared Major Risk Locus on CFA12.

PLoS One. 2015 Aug 11;10(8):e0134720. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134720. eCollection 2015.

Bianchi M, Dahlgren S, Massey J, Dietschi E, Kierczak M, Lund-Ziener M, Sundberg K, Thoresen SI, Kämpe O, Andersson G, Ollier WE, Hedhammar Ĺ, Leeb T, Lindblad-Toh K, Kennedy LJ, Lingaas F, Rosengren Pielberg G.

Hypothyroidism is a complex clinical condition found in both humans and dogs, thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this study we present a multi-breed analysis of predisposing genetic risk factors for hypothyroidism in dogs using three high-risk breeds--the Gordon Setter, Hovawart and the Rhodesian Ridgeback. Using a genome-wide association approach and meta-analysis, we identified a major hypothyroidism risk locus shared by these breeds on chromosome 12 (p = 2.1x10(-11)). Further characterisation of the candidate region revealed a shared ~167 kb risk haplotype (4,915,018-5,081,823 bp), tagged by two SNPs in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. This breed-shared risk haplotype includes three genes (LHFPL5, SRPK1 and SLC26A8) and does not extend to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II gene cluster located in the vicinity. These three genes have not been identified as candidate genes for hypothyroid disease previously, but have functions that could potentially contribute to the development of the disease. Our results implicate the potential involvement of novel genes and pathways for the development of canine hypothyroidism, raising new possibilities for screening, breeding programmes and treatments in dogs. This study may also contribute to our understanding of the genetic etiology of human hypothyroid disease, which is one of the most common endocrine disorders in humans.

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Free thyroxine concentrations by equilibrium dialysis and chemiluminescent immunoassays in 13 hypothyroid dogs positive for thyroglobulin antibody.

J Vet Intern Med. 2015 May-Jun;29(3):877-81. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12573. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Randolph JF, Lamb SV, Cheraskin JL, Schanbacher BJ, Salerno VJ, Mack KM, Scarlett JM, Place NJ.

To determine if concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by semi-automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) correspond to FT4 determined by equilibrium dialysis (ED) in hypothyroid dogs positive for thyroglobulin antibody (TGA). Thirteen TGA-positive dogs classified as hypothyroid based on subnormal FT4 concentrations by ED. Qualitative assessment of canine TGA was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum total thyroxine and total triiodothyronine concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum FT4 concentration was determined by ED, and also by semi-automated CLIA for human FT4 (FT4h) and veterinary FT4 (FT4v). Canine thyroid stimulating hormone concentration was measured by semi-automated CLIA. Each dog's comprehensive thyroid profile supported a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. For detection of hypothyroidism, sensitivities of CLIA for FT4h and FT4v were 62% (95% CI, 32-85%) and 75% (95% CI, 36-96%), respectively, compared to FT4 by ED. Five of 13 (38%) dogs had FT4h and 2 of 8 (25%) dogs had FT4v concentrations by CLIA that were increased or within the reference range. Percentage of false-negative test results for FT4 by CLIA compared to ED was significantly (P < .0001 for FT4h and P < .001for FT4v) higher than the hypothesized false-negative rate of 0%. Caution should be exercised in screening dogs for hypothyroidism using FT4 measured by CLIA alone. Some (25-38%) TGA-positive hypothyroid dogs had FT4 concentrations determined by CLIA that did not support a diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

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Veterinary Dermatology

Veterinary Dermatology ist das offizielle Journal der European Society of Veterinary Dermatology, des American College of Veterinary Dermatology, der American Academy of Veterinary Dermatology, des European College of Veterinary Dermatology, der Canadian Academy of Veterinary Dermatology, des Australian College of Veterinary Scientists, der Asian Society of Veterinary Dermatology und der International Society of Veterinary Dermatopathology.

Veterinary Dermatology: onlinelibrary.wiley.com onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Literaturquellen über atopische Dermatitis

• Lourenço AM, Schmidt V, Săo Braz B, Nóbrega D, Nunes T, Duarte-Correia JH, Matias D, Maruhashi E, Rčme CA, Nuttall T.: Efficacy of proactive long-term maintenance therapy of canine atopic dermatitis with 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray: a double-blind placebo controlled pilot study; Vet Dermatol. 2016 Apr;27(2):88-e25. doi: 10.1111/vde.12285. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

• DeBoer DJ, Verbrugge M, Morris M.: Clinical and immunological responses of dust mite sensitive, atopic dogs to treatment with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT); Vet Dermatol. 2016 Apr;27(2):82-e24. doi: 10.1111/vde.12284. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

• Bradley CW, Morris DO, Rankin SC, Cain CL, Misic AM, Houser T, Mauldin EA, Grice EA.: Longitudinal evaluation of the skin microbiome and association with microenvironment and treatment in canine atopic dermatitis; J Invest Dermatol. 2016 Feb 5. pii: S0022-202X(16)00455-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.01.023. [Epub ahead of print]

• Mueller RS, Olivry T, Prélaud P.: Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (2): common food allergen sources in dogs and cats; BMC Vet Res. 2016 Jan 12;12(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0633-8.

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• Olivry T, Mueller RS, Prélaud P.: Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (1): duration of elimination diets; BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 28;11:225. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0541-3.

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• Olivry T, DeBoer DJ, Favrot C, Jackson HA, Mueller RS, Nuttall T, Prélaud P; International Committee on Allergic Diseases of Animals.: Treatment of canine atopic dermatitis: 2015 updated guidelines from the International Committee on Allergic Diseases of Animals (ICADA); BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 16;11:210. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0514-6.

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• Hensel P, Santoro D, Favrot C, Hill P, Griffin C.: Canine atopic dermatitis: detailed guidelines for diagnosis and allergen identification; BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 11;11:196. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0515-5.

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• Suto A, Suto Y, Onohara N, Tomizawa Y, Yamamoto-Sugawara Y, Okayama T, Masuda K.: Food allergens inducing a lymphocyte-mediated immunological reaction in canine atopic-like dermatitis; J Vet Med Sci. 2015 Feb;77(2):251-4. doi: 10.1292/jvms.14-0406.

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• Hardy JI, Hendricks A, Loeffler A, Chang YM, Verheyen KL, Garden OA, Bond R.: Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories; Vet Dermatol. 2014 Oct;25(5):447-e70. doi: 10.1111/vde.12137.

• Praxisrichtlinien der Internationale Projektgruppe Canine Atopische Dermatitis (International Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis, 2010).

Deutsche Übersetzung - Frei zugängig unter onlinelibrary.wiley.com onlinelibrary.wiley.com.

Literaturquellen über Fuchsräude

• Huang HP, Lien YH.: Feline sarcoptic mange in Taiwan: a case series of five cats; Vet Dermatol. 2013 Aug; 24(4): 457-9, e104-5. doi: 10.1111/vde.12049. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

• Aydıngöz IE, Mansur AT.: Canine scabies in humans: a case report and review of the literature; Dermatology. 2011;223(2):104-6. doi: 10.1159/000327378. Epub 2011 Apr 29.

Literaturquellen über Flohallergie

• Cadiergues MC, Pressanti C.: Efficacy of spinosad tablets administered to a colony of 15 indoor cats naturally infested with fleas; ISRN Vet Sci. 2014 Feb 5;2014:484308. doi: 10.1155/2014/484308. eCollection 2014.

• Brianti E, Falsone L, Napoli E, Prudente C, Gaglio G, Giannetto S.: Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®) in slow release collars to control ticks and fleas in highly infested dog communities; Parasit Vectors. 2013 Jul 18;6:210. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-210.

• Stanneck D, Ebbinghaus-Kintscher U, Schoenhense E, Kruedewagen EM, Turberg A, Leisewitz A, Jiritschka W, Krieger KJ.: The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats; Parasit Vectors. 2012 Apr 12;5:73. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-73.

Literaturquellen über Malassezien

• Cavana P, Petit JY, Perrot S, Guechi R, Marignac G, Reynaud K, Guillot J. J Mycol Med.: Efficacy of a 2% climbazole shampoo for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs; 2015 Dec;25(4):268-73. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2015.10.004. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

• Gimmler JR, White AG, Kennis RA, Cruz-Espindola C, Boothe DM.: Determining canine skin concentrations of terbinafine to guide the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis; Vet Dermatol. 2015 Dec;26(6):411-e96. doi: 10.1111/vde.12245. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Literaturquellen über bakterielle Infektionen

• Doelle M, Loeffler A, Wolf K, Kostka V, Linek M.: Clinical features, cytology and bacterial culture results in dogs with and without cheilitis and comparison of three sampling techniques; Vet Dermatol. 2016 Mar 28. doi: 10.1111/vde.12300. [Epub ahead of print]

• Pipe-Martin HN, Peterson TA, Langohr IM, Lane M, Fletcher JM, Gaschen F, Pucheu-Haston CM.: Sepsis and multi-organ dysfunction associated with postgrooming furunculosis in a dog; Vet Dermatol. 2016 Mar 28. doi: 10.1111/vde.12298. [Epub ahead of print]

• Joffe D, Goulding F, Langelier K, Magyar G, McCurdy L, Milstein M, Nielsen K, Villemaire S.: Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in canine pyoderma cases in primary care veterinary practices in Canada: A preliminary study; Can Vet J. 2015 Oct;56(10):1084-6.

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• Pompilio A, De Nicola S, Crocetta V, Guarnieri S, Savini V, Carretto E, Di Bonaventura G.: New insights in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pathogenicity: antibiotic-resistant biofilm formation by a human wound-associated strain; BMC Microbiol. 2015 May 21;15:109. doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0449-x.

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• Banovic F, Koch S, Robson D, Jacob M, Olivry T.: Deep pyoderma caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex associated with ciclosporin administration in dogs: a case series; Vet Dermatol. 2015 Aug;26(4):287-e64. doi: 10.1111/vde.12210. Epub 2015 May 12.

• Larsen R, Boysen L, Berg J, Guardabassi L, Damborg P.: Lincosamide resistance is less frequent in Denmark in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from first-time canine superficial pyoderma compared with skin isolates from clinical samples with unknown clinical background; Vet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;26(3):202-5, e43-4. doi: 10.1111/vde.12209. Epub 2015 Apr 18.

Literaturquellen über Demodikose

• Beugnet F, Halos L, Larsen D, de Vos C.: Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis; Parasite. 2016;23:14. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

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• Six RH, Becskei C, Mazaleski MM, Fourie JJ, Mahabir SP, Myers MR, Slootmans N.: Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral isoxazoline, against two common mite infestations in dogs: Demodex spp. and Otodectes cynotis; Vet Parasitol. 2016 Mar 4. pii: S0304-4017(16)30050-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.02.027. [Epub ahead of print]

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• Ravera I, Ferreira D, Gallego LS, Bardagí M, Ferrer L.: Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis; Res Vet Sci. 2015 Aug;101:161-4. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.06.011. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

• Fourie JJ, Liebenberg JE, Horak IG, Taenzler J, Heckeroth AR, Frénais R.: Efficacy of orally administered fluralaner (Bravecto™) or topically applied imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®) against generalized demodicosis in dogs; Parasit Vectors. 2015 Mar 28;8:187. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0775-8.

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Veterinärdermatologie - Literatur

2010

• Schnabl B, Bettenay S, Glos N, Linek M, Loewenstein C, Mueller RS: Oral selamectin in the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis.Vet Rec. 2010 Jun 5;166(23):710-4.

2009

• Belo N, Passos LMF, Costa-Jr LM, Goulart CE, Sherlock TM, Braga EM: Avian malaria in captive psittacine birds: detection by microscopy and 18S rRNA gene amplification. Prev Vet Med. 88(3):220-4. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Bhoora R, Franssen L, Guthrie AJ, Zweygarth E, Oosthuizen MC, Penzhorn BL, Jongejan F, Collins NE: Characterization of South African Theileria equi and Babesia caballi isolates based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. Vet Parasitol. 159:112-20. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Costa-Junior LM, Ribeiro MF, Rembeck K, Rabelo EM, Zahler-Rinder M, Hirzmann J, Pfister K, Passos LM: Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis vogeli in rural areas of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil and factors associated with its seroprevalence. Res Vet Sci. 86(2):257-60. [Epub 2008 Aug 23]. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Esteves E, Bastos CV, Zivrovic Z, de la Fuente J, Kocan K, Blouin E, Ribeiro MFB, Passos LMF, Daffre S: Propagation of a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale with appendage in a tick cell line (BME26) derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Vet Parasitol. 161(1-2):150-3. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Gilles J, Silaghi C, Just FT, Pradel I, Pfister K: Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Rickettsia felis-like Organism in Archaeopsylla erinacei (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) From Bavaria, Germany. J Med Entomol. 46(3):703-7. PubMed Link PubMed Link

2006

• Beck W, Boch K, Mackensen H, Wiegand B, Pfister K: Qualitative and quantitative observations on the flea population dynamics of dogs and cats in several areas of Germany. Vet Parasitol. 137(1-2):130-6. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Beck W, Möbius S, Hansen O, Gall Y, Pfister K: [Efficacy of a formulation containing imidacloprid and moxidectin (Advocate®) against naturally acquired ear mange in rabbits]. Kleintierpraxis 51(5):256-62.

• Beck W, Pfister K: [Questionnaire on the incidence and control of fleas in dogs and cats presented to German small animal practices]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 119(7-8):355-9. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Beck W, Pfister K: [Mites as a cause of zoonoses in human beings]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 118(19-20 Suppl 3):27-32. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Conrads A, Wrieg H-H, Beck W: [Otacariasis in cats caused by Otodectes cynotis - Biology of Otodectes cynotis, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment with selamectin (Stronghold®)]. Tierärztl Praxis 34(K): 112-117.

• Conrads A, Wrieg H-H, Beck W: [Tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in a pet hamster - a case report]. Kleintierpraxis 51: 539-543.

• Hansen O, Gall Y, Pfister K, Beck W: Efficacy of a formulation containing imidacloprid and moxidectin against naturally acquired ear mite infestations (Psoroptes cuniculi) in rabbits. J Appl Res Vet Med. 3:281-286. Download PDF Download PDF

• Hansen O, Mencke N, Pfister K, Beck W: Efficacy of a formulation containing imidacloprid and permethrin against naturally acquired ectoparasite infestations (Ctenocephalides felis, Cheyletiella parasitovorax, and Listrophorus gibbus) in rabbits. J Appl Res Vet Med. 4:320-325. Download PDF Download PDF

2005

• Beck W, Pfister K, Weiland G: [Epidemiological investigations of bovine Chorioptes mange in Germany]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 118(3-4):128-33. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Beck W, Saunders M, Schunack B, Pfister K: [Flea control in wild, rescued hedgehogs - A therapeutic approach with nitenpyram (Capstar®)]. Prakt Tierarzt 86(11):798-802.

• Löwenstein C, Beck W, Bessmann K, Müller RS: Feline demodicosis caused by concurrent infestation with Demodex cati and an unnamed species of mite. Vet Rec. 157:290-292. PubMed Link PubMed Link

• Pantchev N, Globokar-Vrhovec M, Beck W: [Endoparasites from indoor kept small mammals and hedgehogs. Laboratory evaluation of fecal, serological, and urinary samples (2002-2004)]. Tierärztl Praxis 33(K):296-306.

• Pfister K, Beelitz P, Beck W: Parasitologische Diagnostik. In: Klinische Labordiagnostik in der Tiermedizin, Hrsg.: Kraft/Dürr, 6. Auflage, 371-428, Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, 2005.

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